“What’s in a game..”   Thoughts on indie game trends

I recently went to my second Screenshake, an indie game festival in Antwerp, Belgium, together with my fellow PhD candidate colleague Francisco. It’s a nice initiative that, among other things, tries to give the Belgian game scene a bit of  exposure and attempts to bring a diverse crowd together: a good balance in gender (both talks and audience), and the most diverse crowd on pretty much any level you can imagine. It’s.. impressive.

Francisco playing a Mexican character.. very Inception-like.

Francisco playing a Mexican character.. very Inception-like.

As a computer scientist, the event tends to get a bit too artsy for my taste. Choosing talks was difficult due to the limited information (only a short, sometimes very cryptic biography), and I couldn’t get to the Industry Talks on Saturday, which, I’m sure/I hope, were not artsy at all. So I chose the talks of  Annamaria Andrea and Pietro Righi Riva on Sunday morning, based on the fact that they’re academics as well, expecting very clear and fact-based presentations. Sadly however, they were both in a casual mode, presenting a lot of ideas and thoughts but lacking structure and a general clear message to take away (I have a feeling this blog post is heading in a similar direction). Okay, maybe that’s a bit too harsh, both were interesting talks. But it made me wonder where they want games to head. (Disclaimer: I might have completely misinterpreted these talks or their points being made, because everyone seemed to nod in agreement while we both looked confused. That’s what the comment section or @svencharleer is for).

I saw two trends, opposite extremes as you will: one towards too much freedom, and one towards too many restrictions in video game design.

Noby Noby Boy – PS3 2009

Freedom: Annamaria talked about authorship in games (I’m recently doing something in datavis around that topic. Totally unrelated! Not sure why I mentioned this. Hey it’s my blog): as a game designer, attempt to give a good amount of freedom to the player, try not to impose too much, and let them fill in the interpretations themselves. Made me think of Minecraft, or GTA when you rip out the story line. These sandbox environment promote creativity, personal input etc.  My question is, how do you categorise these games: where do you draw the line, when does it actually stop being a game. E.g. I can give a kid a stick, and they can pretend it to be anything, play for hours, but that didn’t make me a game designer. Sure, an extreme example, but a minimal guidance, a specific personal input from the designer seems necessary? How much deviation in interpretation do you want to give? How do you create those boundaries, for it not to remain a game? Nobi Nobi Boy comes to mind, by  Keita Takahashi. Sure, it looks like a game. But is it?  I’m biased of course, I like games with stories. I love Shadow of the Colossus, The Last Guardian, Day of the Tentacle.. all linear stories that “hold my hand” so I don’t get lost. I’m not a fan of open worlds, except maybe World of Warcraft (but I’d hate it without the multiplayer aspect, which is a totally different story). Open worlds can retain my attention for about five minutes. Then I’m out.

Restriction: But that brings me to Pietro’s talk and his manifesto, and his attempt to broaden the reach of video games. A bit of a weirdly structured talk: he goes through all the steps of his manifesto but then spends half the talk about the issue of time flow. See, according to Pietro it’s important to create, say, a two hour experience. The player becomes more of a spectator, and has no real direct input on the outcome. You’d only play through it once, and using examples such as Zelda’s Majora’s Mask, he explains that it’s been done before, but not without the concept of looping, forcing the player to partake in some kind of Groundhog Day experience. He doesn’t want looping, but he doesn’t want you to miss out on anything either.

First concern? Why haven’t we seen real-time in games a lot lately? Because it doesn’t really work well. It puts a huge amount of stress on the player, and therefore it isn’t a good candidate to lure in non-gamers.  Secondly, how do you technically achieve this? One single run-through, but the player must be aware of all plot moments. I can think of two things: those 70s split screen cuts, and the FMV games Ground Zero: Texas and Night Trap (I bet the SJWs would have a field day with this one, if it were to be released today), where time moves on, and you have to constantly switch cameras to make sure you’ve seen it all (oh and shoot aliens). These mechanics might have been abandoned for reasons though.

Night Trap - Sega CD 1992

Night Trap – Sega CD 1992

A huge concern I have with this manifesto, is that it feels like Pietro is trying to copy, what is, a movie. A two hour experience you sit through. Interactivity is limited to changing focus, but if you want the player to not miss the important events, those interactions are by definition going to be meaningless. I don’t think it qualifies as a game, if you don’t actually play..  (that’s not completely true of course, and we can redefine this term as the industry continues to mature). Also, don’t try to appeal to such a large target group. If you want to reel in new crowds, design for them specifically. Do some participatory design, talk to your target audience. Whatever appeals to the masses isn’t necessarily good anyway.

Many games on demo did take queues from this manifesto: lots of games on demo were just  interactive experiences. It reminds me of the 90s, when the CD-ROM was released, creating an abundance of interactive multimedia. FMV was a big thing, but not an easy thing to interact with. The result? Lots of interactive movies. I’m sure it pulled in a lot of new types of gamers, but to those of us growing up with Mario and Sonic, it felt like a huge step backwards. I’m not saying there is no place for these experiences, but the classifier “video game” seems a bit far fetched. I won’t say “games” like Dragon’s Lair weren’t pretty though. But did anyone really enjoy playing those? Another example, I think this was L.O.C.K. by Tales of Tales, see below. Pretty? Sure…

today at #screenshake17 with @svencharleer

A post shared by Francisco Gutiérrez (@francisco.ghz) on

I appreciate Firewatch (loved) and Oxenfree (played through it yesterday) though. Those are good games. But I consider them on the border of being real games. Interactive stories, sure. Point and Click adventure? Barely..

OK, so with indie games you can experiment away. No barrier on creative freedom. That’s the beauty of it: no publisher breathing down your neck. And if it’s pieces of art you wish to make, only understandable and appreciated by a minority, sure, it’s your total right to do so. Abstract art has an audience. I’m not part of that audience, as you might have guessed. But again, do not coin the term game. Games can be art, but interactive art isn’t necessarily a game. And that brings me to a final “little” frustration that came up seeing some of the demos (totally due to the fact I’m working in Human-Computer Interaction, or maybe my impatience as I’m older now): “it’s not good practice to make something hard to use as part of your design” (messy controls aren’t art either). It took us (two average intelligent guys) a couple of minutes to understand the input methods for If Found, Please Return, which then sadly enough only seemed to act like a Prezi presentation. OK, too harsh, I’m just trying to make a point, I can’t judge a game properly from a few minutes on a demo floor. But it made us walk away,  which isn’t a good sign. Then some games will throw away a good button layout for a complete random mess no gamer would ever understand, e.g. triggers for jump and shoot in a shoot’m up platformer called Hivejump. As if Contra never happened :/ .. Recently I saw a friend try Broforce. He wasn’t new to games either. Felt like watching a toddler discover a platformer for the first time. (Phil Fish can say what he want about Japanese video games, but at least people don’t feel/look stupid when playing them) What I’m trying to get at is this: involving your audience in the design is important. Learning from successful designs is too. Don’t fix what isn’t broken. Experimenting with new things? Sure. But do some solid user evaluations. Real users. Not your techy friends.. Don’t take it from me (hey it’s just part of my research/job), take it from Silicon Valley:

Being my blog, I have the freedom to do whatever I want. So I’m not going to give you a proper conclusion (I already have enough work trying to do so for my PhD dissertation). This post was a personal interpretation of my experience, so, in line with what I’ve learned at Screenshake,  I’ll leave the interpretation of this blog post to the player.. I mean reader. Feel free to contribute (or criticise, that’s .. the academic way!).


Another job, another commute. Visualized

I’ve had quite a few different jobs.. well, about five… But that’s quite a lot for your typical Belgian (we fear change!). This resulted in a range of long car commutes, short bicycle commutes, extreme long train commutes… You’d think I’d learn and go for shorter with every job change, but alas… I didn’t.

My latest commute is even the longest yet. But working at Augment, Erik Duval’s and now Katrien Verbert’s research group at KU Leuven, has been worth it. And it probably is the most fun/satisfying/creative/soul shattering/depressing (yes) job I’ve had. Good times!

Anyway, it got me thinking that I should try to visualise the differences between my commutes. No rocket science, but I thought it would be fun to walk you through them.


First, a quick explanation. The colors are explained in the image above, the thickness of a line indicates the difficulty of that part of the trip (traffic jams for car, waiting for connections in case of the train, and cycling just requires effort,.. always). The partial donuts indicate ring roads and how much distance is spent on them. All of these are very rough estimates, enough to tell my story. The bar on the right indicates the best possible time (green) to the worst possible time (red). These are based on what Google Maps estimates during morning rush hours (again, no exact science here). Okay? Let’s go.

Job #1: Northgate Arinso


Ah, Brussels and its traffic jams. Our country is small, but our traffic jams are amongst world’s biggest. And we chose to live north of Brussels, which meant I’d have to head through the longest and busiest part of the Brussels Ring. I was young and stupid,  and spent 4.5 years in horrible traffic jams. Seriously hated it in the end. But it did give me a lot of time to think. Think about what my next job should be! (staring at the trunk of the car in front of you is quite.. zen and inspiring?)
That thick part at the start of the trip? Two lanes merging onto one on a bridge. Could add an hour to your route if you didn’t know the shortcuts. Horrible! (they widened the bridge AFTER I moved job/house of course)

Job #2: Monumental Games


I managed to land a job in the games industry, a dream of mine since I was a kid. Added bonus: I went from 2-3 hours a day wasted in the car to my shortest commute ever. Was even short enough  to have lunch at home with Elke! I had to buy a bicycle (I was a.. car person, but on a puny game developer salary.. no dice), but in the end the overtime was worse than my previous commute time. So.. I left!

Job #3: iChoosr


There were many reasons why I left the game industry (there are things I miss: many of my colleagues, making games, and a bit of Nottingham. And things I don’t miss: rain), but it was time to move on, and we arrived back in Belgium: Antwerp. Being even closer to work, getting the bicycle out of the basement was sometimes just not worth the time. Elke’s work was right next to ours, so we could meet up for lunch every day. Second best lunches ever!


We ended up buying a house, away from the city. So the commute got longer. Still, two bicycle rides and a trip on the train weren’t too bad… But the time it takes for the short distance was quite ridiculous (welcome to Belgium).

Job #4: Northgate Arinso


Leaving iChoosr was a bit weird (I was the first at the company to ever leave..), but I thought, hey, commutes, I can handle those! I’ve done horrible commutes for almost five years! .. But I did seem to forget we relocated: we moved to the north of Antwerp, which added another ring road to my trip… It took me 3 months to realise what I did. It took me another year to find an exit.

Job #5: KU Leuven


Okay, it’s even further away. But I get to do research! Be creative! Get a PhD in the end (hopefully). Two ring roads again, but this time, the Brussels part is quite short.


Universities do not give you cars, but they do give you train subscriptions! So, thanks to the amazing services of the NMBS (Belgian railways), with its weekly/daily delays and cancelled trains, it can take up to three hours to get to work (or you just can’t get anywhere,.. it happens more often than you think). This can get quite frustrating, but the train has become my second office. Not a complete waste of time..


Now, if I had more time, it would be great to visualise my love for each job/company/colleagues, and weigh it against salary, commute distance etc. But hey, I don’t want to burn any bridges. And even so, every job I’ve had was amazing in its own way. I made great friends, learned things! Not regretting any of it..

I will end with this: the actual locations of the companies. And here, I’ve improved. I present to you, from left to right: Northgate Arinso, Monumentel Games, iChoosr, Northgate Arinso again,.. and KU Leuven.


Yep. We’ve gone greener. However, the access to good lunch places is equally bad on both the university campus and the industrial area in which Northgate Arinso was located. The prettiest building I’ve worked in (on the outside anyway) deserves some attention as well: “The Prudential Building” in Nottingham.


Hope you enjoyed the trip (pun intended, of course). If you like this type of visualisation, I’d love to see it applied to your own commutes. Or anything trip related really. Do leave comments!

Oh, and lessons learned? Err… Balance is everything! But home working is the best?!




A big part of Human-Computer Interaction research is observation, staring for hours on at how your participants use and abuse your system, or behave without it. Having detailed information on exactly when and what people do, is quite important. The more detailed the logs, the better.

A usual approach is recording the audio during an evaluation session. Or even better, pointing a bunch of cameras to the participants from as many angles as possible. But sometimes, just sometimes, privacy and ethics (or just unwilling participants) get in the way. The next best thing? Taking notes…


Strangely enough I couldn’t find a single, simple app that would just let me write notes with timestamps next to it (I’m guessing my Googling skills aren’t what they used to be, but still, I needed a solution quickly!).

Say hello to Atom, the “hackable” editor from the people at GitHub. I quickly threw some JavasScript together et voila, a solution to my problems: the time-notes package.

I know, this is the complete opposite of rocket science. But sometimes simple (it’s just a few lines of code) is enough. You’d be surprised how useful this was when spending 7 hours taking notes in a highly sensitive (personal data discussions with the occasional emotional moment) evaluation. Hey, it even saves it into the tsv format!

Now if someone could automate the process of analysing my notes, that’d be great.

Atom editor: https://atom.io/
Time-notes package: https://atom.io/packages/time-notes


Your Emotional Fingerprint on Slack

Update: Due to several requests, I’ve uploaded the code of the visualisation part of the Emotional Fingerprint to GitHub. Enjoy! https://github.com/svencharleer/emo-slack-fingerprint
This article was originally posted on June 10, 2015

I’ve been doubting between calling it an emotional footprint or fingerprint. You leave a digital, emotional footprint behind on social networks, so that would’ve made sense. However, your emotional state, and the emotional traces you leave behind, must be quite unique… Fingerprint it is!

This article discusses the steps it took to come up with the final design presented above. For the technical details, if there is enough interest I’ll just throw it on Github and you can all help perfect this rough prototype.

Version 1

Sentiment analysis provides interesting insights into social network behaviour. Our team uses Slack as its main means of communication, the perfect testbed for exploring new and interesting ways of visualising the emotional state and distribution based on our active discussions on Slack.

Version 1. A green square is a positive post, a pink negative. Grey is neutral. Brightness indicates level of positivity.

With about 6 months of data, a week overview gives us interesting insights on both the distribution of activity across weekdays, but also the emotional nature of our posts. The above image shows a first attempt at visualising the sentiment analysis data, from Sunday (left) to Saturday (right).

The small bar indicator above every “day” data shows the general sentimental state, while every small square represents one post: dark green to light green indicates a somewhat positive to very positive post, dark pink to bright pink a bit negative, to an extremely negative post. Shades of grey indicates neutral posts. Posts are ordered by time.

This provides an interesting overview of emotion per day, and also over time. Individual posts are nice but can get quite overwhelming with time (as your Slack community’s activity grows).

Version 2

Version 2: hours of the week are on the X-axis. Every square onthe Y-axis represents the number of posts of a specific polarity level.

Similar to the previous visualisation, the above image represents activity per weekday, but now the X-axis is used to represent the hours of the week (e.g. there is a total of 7 x 24 columns of squares). Color brightness indicates the number of posts for a specific sentimental polarity level: grey to white indicates the number of neutral posts, dark green to bright green indicates the number of positive posts (brighter colors equal more posts). The height represents the level of sentiment e.g. a green dot near the top is a very positive post, while a green dot near the center (near the neutral posts) indicate a somewhat positive post.

While information on individual posts is lost, it is easier to see the distribution of levels of emotions per hour of a specific weekday. Great, but can we do better?

Version 3: The Emotional Fingerprint

(currently) The final version. Every user has a 7 column fingerprint. The larger the Y-range, the more spread your posts are emotionally-wise!

Condensing the data even more, the Emotional Fingerprint visualisation gives every Slack user a unique overview of their emotional state across the entire dataset per weekday (7 columns for 7 weekdays). While giving personal insights, the Emotional Fingerprint presents an easy way of comparing individuals and could help find patterns in larger communities, or even across communities. As mentioned before, we’d love for you, those Slack communities, and any other really, to get in touch!

This is a slightly extended, less “dry” version of my post on https://augmenthuman.wordpress.com/portfolio/emotional-fingerprint/ , our research group’s website.

Visualising European Newspapers for Digital Humanities Researchers

This article was originally published on the Europeana Research blog

Through The European Library website, Digital Humanities researchers are now given access to 10 million European digitised newspaper pages. While the availability and accessibility of this rich material are a great addition to the researcher corpus, the large amount of data can make it hard to find the specifics a researcher is looking for.

We gathered a group of Digital Humanities researchers in Amsterdam to collect ideas in a 1-day workshop on how we could improve the access to the data and what tools could improve the research workflow. A similar, shorter session was organised during the Europeana Cloud Plenary Meeting in Edinburgh. Ideas that came up inlcuded visualising sentiment analysis, how news moves through time and space, being able to compare queries, moving and continuing search results to personal digital spaces, sharing results with other researchers, dealing with language issues, spelling changes through time, visualising the precision of OCR, entity recognition etc. The list is quite long.

Our current prototype focuses on creating a faceted search environment through an interactive visualisation focussing on the time and space aspects. Following and “overview+details on demand” approach, the visualisation provides both an overview to allow researchers to find patterns in the data and gain insights across time and space, while also giving access to each individual newspaper image.

The map, timeline, newspaper and result modules shared on one screen

The prototype consists of 6 modules:

  • a text search widget: supports search on words and sentences in the OCR’d newspaper text;
  • a newspaper title widget: in order to restrict searches to specific newspapers;
  • a timeline widget: in order to restrict searches to a specific time frame while also visualising the number of newspapers in the search resultper year;
  • a map widget: enables a researcher to explore the distribution across Europe while also providing the ability to restrict a search to a specific country (note: due to the metadata lacking country information, language is currently used as a country indicator);
  • a search history widget: visualises the history of search terms/facet selections of the user;
  • a newspaper edition result widget: shows all results within the selection of the widgets above;
  • a newspaper view: shows the actual newspaper scan.

Created using Processing.js for the visualisations, Socket.IO for live communication with a Node.js server, any interaction with a single module updates all other modules, e.g. selecting a country adjusts the timeline to overlay the results of the selected country, selecting a specific time frame shows only the countries and newspapers that are relevant to that time selection. The whole application can run across multiple devices at the same time, enabling set-ups from a single tabletop device to multiple displays on mobile devices. All updates happen cross-device, wherever the devices are located.

Such a setup is very flexible: researchers can not only decide which modules they wish to use, but also how they wish to access them. Large displays can visualise all modules simultaneously, while multiple screens (e.g. multiple computer screens, large TVs, interactive tabletops, tablets and phones) can each provide access to 1 or more modules.

Early version of the prototype: The left iPad shows the results per newspaper, the right iPad shows the timeline. The laptop shows the map module, while the iPhone lets the user do text queries. An action on any device updates all other devices.

A researcher can decide to open multiple tabs in a browser to access the data on smaller screens. Researchers can share live searches, creating a co-located or even remotely shared faceted search environment. This also means the visualisation can be deployed in other settings such as a public library, using a public display where visitors can interact with the visualisation using personal devices.

We are currently in the usability testing phase, where we evaluate both the usability of the modules, but also the viability of the multiple screen setup. Deploying the visualisation on a large interactive tabletop as well as spreading it out on multiple tablets has already shown that faceted search performs equally well from a user point of view on both setups.

A large display presenting the title page of the selected newspaper on the right, while providing the search history on the left.

The results of these evaluations will let us improve the visualisation even further, after which we shall ask Digital Humanities researchers to join in and provide us with expert feedback. If you wish to be part of this process, do let us know!